A gigantic sequencing effort by investigators at University of Washington has provided a wealth of new information about the HHV-6B genome, including important flaws of the reference strains currently in use.
A broadscale investigation of the ovarian cancer oncobiome using a microarray system PathoChip found HHV-6A sequences at or near genes associated with tumorigenesis in ovarian cancer tissue samples.
Italian investigators showed that HHV-6A and -6B infection of natural killer cells have a remarkable effect on the expression of miRNAs and transcription factors, which in turn control natural killer cell development, maturation and function.
A team at University of Pittsburgh analyzed a large database of deep sequencing data from tumor and control tissues to look for viral sequences in 22 different cancers. They were surprised to find several herpesviruses in gastrointestinal cancers but not in control tissues.
Italian investigators found that HHV-6 latency-associated gene U94, inserted in a HSV1 vector, inhibited the development of breast cancer, cervical cancer, and lung metastasis. It also impaired tumor driven angiogenesis.
Antibodies to HHV-6 and VZV dUTPases were significantly elevated in Gulf War Illness patients compared to controls, and EBV dUTPase antibodies were elevated in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients.
HHV-6B induces unique, region-specific DNA hypomethylation, and findings suggest that the epigenetic modification may facilitate HHV-6B integration.
A new study shows that HHV-6A direct repeats can survive alone in an integrated state without the rest of the viral genome. The study also identified non-telomeric integration of HHV-6A in both in vitro cultured cells as well as one iciHHV-6A patient.
The group that recently discovered a ligand for U24 has expanded upon their previous experiments to further elucidate the viral protein’s interactions and functions as they pertain to MS.
Investigators at Johns Hopkins have determined that emetine, an older drug used to treat dysentery as well as to induce vomiting, is also effective against cytomegalovirus (CMV/HHV-5). Not only was emetine effective at an extremely low dose, it demonstrated a synergistic effect when combined with ganciclovir in a mouse model of CMV infection and it worked at a much earlier stage of viral replication than the drugs currently in use.
Chinese investigators from Nanjing Medical University report that HHV-6A infection of astrocytes are associated with differences in gene expression that are also found in several CNS diseases including Alzheimer’s, glioma and multiple sclerosis. The investigators used gene ontology analysis to determine the biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions of the differentially expressed genes and signalling pathways.
A group from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, has reported finding Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and HHV-6 but no cytomegalovirus (CMV) in astrocytomas, a brain tumor comprising approximately one quarter of all gliomas diagnosed. The group used digital droplet PCR (ddPCR), a technique that is highly precise but less sensitive than nested PCR and immunohistochemistry, techniques that have been used in previous studies.
When the research team led by Benedikt Kaufer attempted to shed light on the mechanism behind HHV-6 integration, they were suprised to find telomeric repeats were critical to the integration process. Since the U94 gene shares homology and biological properties with the adenovirus Rep68 gene responsible for viral integration into human chromosomes, U94 was considered the most likely candidate to mediate HHV-6 integration.
It has long been a mystery why HHV-6 is preferentially reactivated in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), also known as drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). HHV-6 reactivation occurs in over 60% of severe cases and is part of the definition of DIHS in Japan. Investigators in Japan suspect that the explanation may lie with the CD134 receptor on activated CD4 cells.
An Italian study on immunocompetent children with suspected CNS infections found HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA in 4.2% and 4.8% of 304 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, respectively. Although once considered rare in the immunocompetent, recent studies with more sensitive methods have found HHV-6 in the CSF of 4-17% of immunocompetent children with seizures or suspected CNS infections.